They tend to see male-male sex in the region as a heterosexual-homosexual divide, which leads them to conclude that MSM is an identity and not a behavior. The second challenge is estimating the prevalence of MSM activity. At times, India collects the data by asking, Are you heterosexual or are you homosexual? Bring the people together, have a quiet meeting, and get the stuff done. Some states are very good in implementing the central government policy and some states are very bad—including the state where we happen to have our office. A second major part of our work involves advocacy and policy. How can outreach and education efforts be framed so that they reach people who identify as MSM as well as partners who may not identify as such? Only in the last three years have effective studies of MSM really been conducted, and suddenly this virus pops up. One is that a lot of people who are implementing MSM programs tend to be middle class and highly educated and English literate, and their knowledge level and self-identity are connected with a sort of Westernized framework of gay identity.
Keep on raising those arguments, get your data, make it evidence based, use that data to argue with donors, argue with governments, argue with policymakers, argue with NGOs. So the violence and rapes against them are more akin to violence against women. NACO made a positive statement. Maybe the train is picking up pace now. So we do quiet diplomacy. There are very few studies but the data still show that what we have in Asian countries is not a generalized epidemic like in South Africa, but very localized epidemics. Statistically, what is the current situation among MSM in terms of the epidemic? We were told to do everything behind the scenes with the government. And so you have to approach the strategy of reducing risk around anal sex outside of a community framework. And then a second strategy requires speaking of anal sex. Our activities have always been focused on MSM. They sent somebody to the city to talk to the police. And I said, what is the point? Activists and governments across Asia are beginning to recognize the seriousness of the epidemic among MSM. So yes, there are positive signs that people are really taking notice and investing money. We were challenged under a section of the Indian penal code about promoting illegal behavior through the distribution of condoms and literature on anal sex and HIV. The goal is to get these boys out and to make sure our program is ongoing. For example, when our staff was arrested in India there was enormous international support for raising this issue. Three of my staff, including the director in our office in India, were arrested along with the manager of a local MSM HIV project that we were supporting. We need to recognize that class and gender are part of the framework so that MSM is understood as a category of behavior and not just an identity. Now we have something like The third is how you design community-based interventions. Some states are very good in implementing the central government policy and some states are very bad—including the state where we happen to have our office. Male-male sex plays out very much within a gender framework. In , NFI staff were arrested in Lucknow. A second major part of our work involves advocacy and policy. At times, India collects the data by asking, Are you heterosexual or are you homosexual?
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