He has studied the works of James Moffett, Ken Macrorie, Linda Reif, Nancie Atwell, and many other contemporary educators dealing with writing and learning. Binding usually started during the winter months since the feet were more likely to be numb, and therefore the pain would not be as extreme. The necrosis of the flesh would also initially give off a foul odor, and later the smell may come from various microorganisms that colonized the folds. Some men preferred never to see a woman's bound feet, so they were always concealed within tiny "lotus shoes" and wrappings. It is however argued that such injunction applies less to women, rather it is meant to emphasize the sacred link between sons and their parents. Reform-minded Chinese intellectuals began to consider footbinding to be an aspect of their culture that needed to be eliminated. He has been teaching as a full professor in the English Department at Redeemer University College in Hamilton, Ontario, since , where he also pursues scholarly work in Canadian literature. A graduate of Calvin College B.
However, once a foot had been crushed and bound, attempting to reverse the process by unbinding was painful,  and the shape could not be reversed without a woman undergoing the same pain all over again. Disease inevitably followed infection, meaning that death from septic shock could result from foot-binding, and a surviving girl was more at risk for medical problems as she grew older. A less severe form in Sichuan, called "cucumber foot" huanggua jiao due to its slender shape, folded the four toes under but did not distort the heel and taper the ankle. The necrosis of the flesh would also initially give off a foul odor, and later the smell may come from various microorganisms that colonized the folds. He has been teaching as a full professor in the English Department at Redeemer University College in Hamilton, Ontario, since , where he also pursues scholarly work in Canadian literature. According to Robert van Gulik , the bound feet were also considered the most intimate part of a woman's body; in erotic art of the Qing to Song periods where the genitalia may be shown, the bound feet were never depicted uncovered. It was considered preferable to have someone other than the mother do it, as she might have been sympathetic to her daughter's pain and less willing to keep the bindings tight. University of Western Ontario has taught composition, business writing, creative writing, and literature courses to college students for more than 25 years at Dordt College in Sioux Center, Iowa. In , with Pat Sebranek, Dr. Bones in the girls' feet would often be deliberately broken again in order to further change the size or shape of the feet. It was generally an elder female member of the girl's family or a professional foot binder who carried out the initial breaking and ongoing binding of the feet. Even after the foot bones had healed, they were prone to re-breaking repeatedly, especially when the girl was in her teenage years and her feet were still soft. John Van Rys Ph. Women with such deformed feet avoided placing weight on the front of the foot and tended to walk predominantly on their heels. When unbound, the broken feet were also kneaded to soften them and the soles of the girl's feet were often beaten to make the joints and broken bones more flexible. For nine years, he taught English in high schools in Michigan and Wisconsin; and for fifteen years, he taught dramatic literature, theatre history, and composition at Dordt College in Iowa. Foot binding was practiced by the Hui Muslims in Gansu Province,  the Dungan Muslims , descendants of Hui from northwestern China who fled to central Asia, were also seen practicing foot binding up to With Write Source Educational Publishing and Cengage Learning, he has co-authored writing handbooks for students from middle school to college. Footbinding was often classified in Chinese encyclopedia as clothing or a form of bodily embellishment rather than mutilation; one from for example placed footbinding in a section on "Female Adornments" that included hairdos, powders, and ear-piercings. Some men preferred never to see a woman's bound feet, so they were always concealed within tiny "lotus shoes" and wrappings. Bound feet nevertheless became a significant differentiating marker between Han women and Manchu or other banner women. Reform-minded Chinese intellectuals began to consider footbinding to be an aspect of their culture that needed to be eliminated. Girls whose toes were more fleshy would sometimes have shards of glass or pieces of broken tiles inserted within the binding next to her feet and between her toes to cause injury and introduce infection deliberately. Furthermore, it is argued that Confucianism institutionalized the family system in which women are called upon to sacrifice themselves for the good of the family, a system that fostered such practice. Manchu women, as well as Mongol and Chinese women in the Eight Banners , did not bind their feet, and the most a Manchu woman might do was to wrap the feet tightly to give them a slender appearance.
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